Sex Ratio: Trends and Patterns at World Level

Jitender Saroha

Sex Ratio: Trends and Patterns at World Level

Keywords : Sex ratio, child sex ratio, decline, preferences, dislikes


The sex ratio represents composition of population in terms of ratio of males and females. There are spatial and temporal variations in sex ratio in the world. Sex ratio depends on determinants of fertility, differential mortality of males and females and sex composition of migrants. From 1960 to 2015 sex ratio hfas declined from 1000 females per 1000 males to 983 females per thousand males. This decline is most noteworthy in child sex ratio in Asia. Within Asia the declining trend of sex ratio is most well established in China, South Asia and Middle East. The trend of declining sex ratio in India, Pakistan and China is due to neglect of the girl child resulting in their higher mortality at younger age, high maternal mortality, sex selective female abortions and female infanticide. In case of Middle East it is due to male dominance in society and male dominated immigration. The objectives of the present paper are – (i) to describe the trends of sex ratio at continental level and world level; (ii) to analyse the world patterns of sex ratio; (iii) to highlight trends of child sex ratio in world, especially in India; and finally (iv) to discuss the trend of declining sex ratio along with its causes and consequences.


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