Discordibus culturis in antiquitate

Keywords : Territorial imperative, civilizations, military imperialism, ideologies


This article explores the clash of four empires and one republic in antiquity. The work attempts to show that microcosmic and macrocosmic factors other than civilizational differences are the causes of conflicts between Western Europe and North Africa, the Middle East and Southern Asia. Micro factors include egotism, ideological differences, revenge, and sometimes personality disorders. Macro factors include the quest for and maintenance of valuable land and sea territories. The evolution of two major religions, Christianity and Islam changed the dynamics of territorial conflicts between countries or empires in the West and East by intensifying territorial disputes. Soldiers and suicide-bombers are pawns in wars which leaders seek to expand or retain territory. However, the aforementioned microcosmic and macrocosmic factors have remained the same in ancient and modern times.


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