Mitigation of Hotspot Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

Pritthish Chattopadhyay

Mitigation of Hotspot Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks

Keywords : Sensor node, mesh, djisktra, clustering, single hop, multi-hop, Efs, Emp, target sink, hotspot


In multi-hop wireless sensor networks that are characterized by many-to-one (converge-cast) traffic patterns, problems which are related to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. When the range of transmission is not dynamic for nodes throughout the network, the amount of traffic that sensors are required to spread increases rapidly as the distance to the data sink becomes lesser. Thus, sensors closest to the data sink have less life time, leaving areas of the network completely unmonitored and causing network partitions. Alternatively, if the entire number of sensors transmits the information to the data sink directly, the furthest nodes from the data sink will die much more quickly than those close to the sink. Average lifetime can be enhanced to a restricted degree by the utilization of a more astute transmission control strategy that makes an adjust of the vitality utilized as a part of every hub by requiring hubs more far from the information sink to transmit over more prominent separations (in spite of the fact that not specifically to the information sink).However, transmission power control alone is not enough to solve the hot spot problem. Rather, policies such as data sink movement or data aggregation are necessary for the network to operate in an energy efficient manner. Since the development of the information sinks and the organization of an aggregator hub might be essentially more costly than the arrangement of a normal small scale sensor hub, there is a cost exchange off included in both of these methodologies.
The present algorithms for cluster head election from among the nodes which transfers data to the data sink, mainly has two problems associated with it. Firstly it does not consider the location of the base station from where the sensor nodes originate. Secondly in case of multi hop transmission there is the hotspot problem associated with it, which means that due the limited energy supply of the sensor nodes, the nodes which are located near the target sink gets their battery energy drained out very fast as the data transmitted from the remote nodes to the target sink always pass through the limited number of nodes located nearest to the sink in case of multi hop transmission.
General belief about cluster based WSNs is that in that order to alleviate hotspot problem ,clusters located near to the sink should be smaller in size than the ones further from the sink. Other responsible factors that may affect the lifetime of the network are the number of the tiers, node density and communication radio coverage radius. All these parameters are examined for all possible combinations in detail.


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