HIV/AIDS: Trends and Patterns in the World

Keywords : HIV, AIDS, Transmission, ATR, Prevalence


HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. This virus attacks human body’s natural defense system against illness and its final stage is called AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV/AIDS originated in Africa and spread to other parts of the world and became a global health challenge within a short span. HIV is transmitted by three main channels – sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from vertical transmission i.e. mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Out of the 36.7 million persons living with HIV globally, about 53 per cent are concentrated in the Eastern and Southern Africa. The top ten countries constitute about 60 per cent of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). The objectives of the present paper are following – (i) to describe the origin and history of HIV/AIDS; (ii) to describe the causes of HIV/AIDS transmission; (iii) to highlight the trends and patterns of HIV/AIDS; (iv) to discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS and finally (v) to point out the major preventive and curative measures of HIV/AIDS.


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