Production of Bio-Alcohol Using Yeasts
- Country : Iraq
- Subject : Biology
Most of us know yeasts very useful organisms, especially it is involved in baking, making wine, and industrial ferments. However, yeast is efficient in many areas: like nutrition human, cosmetic, biotechnology, animal health and nutrition, and in fertilization Plants and pest control and have other applications such as biofuel production. Interest increased about the use of fermentation to produce various alcohols and ethyl alcohol in particular and its use provenance energy, especially its use in engines, after the doubling of oil prices during the seventies, where the output of alcohol and its mixing with a certain percentage of gasoline one of the alternatives to conventional fuels. The search for renewable alternatives to permeable fossil fuels is currently underway, and bioethanol is one of these renewable and environmentally friendly alternatives utilized in car engines and others, due to its rapid flammability when mixed with gasoline. The combustion of ethanol results in the release in little quantities of volatile organic compounds such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. However, the amount of toxic substances resulting from combustion is less than that released from the burning of fossil fuels of fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and others.
Alcohol produced from various types of substance like sugar, starch, and lignocellulosic by microorganisms such as bacteria and yeasts through three basic stages: the pretreatment, hydrolysis and the Fermentation process. The alcohol production process is influenced by many agents, like temperature, pH, oxygenation, sugar concentration, and nitrogen sources.